Newcastle Disease

Causative Agent:-

Newcastle Disease is caused by a paramyxovirus that can vary in pathogenicity from mild to highly pathogenic. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of the superfamily Mononegavirales, genus Rubulavirus and family Paramyxoviridae, which is further classified into two subfamilies, Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae.

Species Affected:-

Newcastle disease affects all birds of all ages. Humans and other mammals are also susceptible to Newcastle. In such species, it causes a mild conjunctivitis.

Also, Read: Infectious Coryza in Poultry

Clinical Signs

The disease can result in digestive, respiratory, and nervous clinical signs.

There are three forms of Newcastle disease:

  • The lentogenic form is mildly pathogenic.
  • The mesogenic form is moderately pathogenic.
  • The velogenic form, or VVND, is highly pathogenic.

Newcastle disease is characterized by a sudden onset of clinical signs which include hoarse chirps (in chicks), watery discharge from nostrils, laboured breathing (gasping), facial swelling, paralysis, trembling, and twisting of the neck (sign of central nervous system involvement).

Newcastle Disease

Twisting of the Neck

Newcastle Disease

Haemorrhages on Proventriculus

Newcastle Disease


Newcastle Disease

Petechial Haemorrhages and ulcer on intestine


Mortality ranges from 10 to 80 percent depending on the pathogenicity. In adult laying birds, symptoms can include decreased feed and water consumption and a dramatic drop in egg production.


The Newcastle virus can be transmitted usually by direct physical contact with infected or diseased birds. The Newcastle virus can be transmitted through the air within short distances. Sick birds can transfer the virus directly to flock mates through body secretions and faecal material. Other sources of infection are contaminated equipment, carcasses, water, food and clothing etc.


There is no specific treatment for Newcastle disease. Antibiotics can be given for 3–5 days to prevent secondary bacterial infections. For chicks, increasing the brooding temperature may help reduce losses.

To avoid the secondary infection, we recommend: –

Broad-spectrum antibiotics:-

  • ENROLIQ (Enrofloxacin 10%): @ 1 ml in 1to 2 litters of drinking water (or)
  • P-MOX-50 (Amoxycillin Powder 50%): @ 1 gm in 5 litres of drinking water

Immunostimulant therapy in drinking water:-

  • E MUNE CARE (Vitamin E, Selenium, Biotin and Folic acid):

Chicks and broiler starters                   :  5 ml/ 100 birds

Growers, Layers, Broiler finishers      : 10 ml/100 birds

Breeders                                                   : 20 ml/100 birds


Prevention programs should include vaccination, good sanitation, and implementation of a comprehensive biosecurity program.